Paper requierment: Read the pdf files page90-118 then write a 5 pages double space paper, use the following 7 critical thinking methods. You can simply label each step, and write in 7 paragraph. After that ask 3 your own questions about this article, these questions don’t to be difficult, but need to relate to our daily life, then answer your own questions.
1. Previewing: Learning about a text before really reading it.
Previewing enables readers to get a sense of what the text is about and how it is organized before reading it closely. This simple strategy includes seeing what you can learn from the headnotes or other introductory material, skimming to get an overview of the content and organization, and identifying the rhetorical situation.
2. Contextualizing: Placing a text in its historical, biographical, and cultural contexts.
When you read a text, you read it through the lens of your own experience. Your understanding of the words on the page and their significance is informed by what you have come to know and value from living in a particular time and place. But the texts you read were all written in the past, sometimes in a radically different time and place. To read critically, you need to contextualize, to recognize the differences between your contemporary values and attitudes and those represented in the text.
3. Questioning to understand and remember: Asking questions about the content.
As students, you are accustomed (I hope) to teachers asking you questions about your reading. These questions are designed to help you understand a reading and respond to it more fully, and often this technique works. When you need to understand and use new information though it is most beneficial if you write the questions, as you read the text for the first time. With this strategy, you can write questions any time, but in difficult academic readings, you will understand the material better and remember it longer if you write a question for every paragraph or brief section. Each question should focus on a main idea, not on illustrations or details, and each should be expressed in your own words, not just copied from parts of the paragraph.
4. Reflecting on challenges to your beliefs and values: Examining your personal responses.
The reading that you do for this class might challenge your attitudes, your unconsciously held beliefs, or your positions on current issues. As you read a text for the first time, mark an X in the margin at each point where you feel a personal challenge to your attitudes, beliefs, or status. Make a brief note in the margin about what you feel or about what in the text created the challenge. Now look again at the places you marked in the text where you felt personally challenged. What patterns do you see?
5. Outlining and summarizing: Identifying the main ideas and restating them in your own words.
Outlining and summarizing are especially helpful strategies for understanding the content and structure of a reading selection. Whereas outlining reveals the basic structure of the text, summarizing synopsizes a selection’s main argument in brief. Outlining may be part of the annotating process, or it may be done separately (as it is in this class). The key to both outlining and summarizing is being able to distinguish between the main ideas and the supporting ideas and examples. The main ideas form the backbone, the strand that holds the various parts and pieces of the text together. Outlining the main ideas helps you to discover this structure. When you make an outline, don’t use the text’s exact words.
Summarizing begins with outlining, but instead of merely listing the main ideas, a summary recomposes them to form a new text. Whereas outlining depends on a close analysis of each paragraph, summarizing also requires creative synthesis. Putting ideas together again — in your own words and in a condensed form — shows how reading critically can lead to deeper understanding of any text.
6. Evaluating an argument: Testing the logic of a text as well as its credibility and emotional impact.
All writers make assertions that they want you to accept as true. As a critical reader, you should not accept anything on face value but to recognize every assertion as an argument that must be carefully evaluated. An argument has two essential parts: a claim and support. The claim asserts a conclusion — an idea, an opinion, a judgment, or a point of view — that the writer wants you to accept. The support includes reasons (shared beliefs, assumptions, and values) and evidence (facts, examples, statistics, and authorities) that give readers the basis for accepting the conclusion. When you assess an argument, you are concerned with the process of reasoning as well as its truthfulness (these are not the same thing). At the most basic level, in order for an argument to be acceptable, the support must be appropriate to the claim and the statements must be consistent with one another.
7. Comparing and contrasting related readings: Exploring likenesses and differences between texts to understand them better.
Many of the authors we read are concerned with the same issues or questions, but approach how to discuss them in different ways. Fitting a text into an ongoing dialectic helps increase understanding of why an author approached a particular issue or question in the way he or she did.
101papers.com is always working towards customer satisfaction. Our professional academic writers always aim at producing comprehensive papers that possess quality and originality at pocket-friendly prices. Students are assured that all their private information is safe with us.
101papers.com provides a system where students can request for money-back in case they cancel the order or in the rare instances of dissatisfaction. The refund policy adheres to the company’s term and conditions on money-back.Read more
While providing the best professional essay writing services, we guarantee all our students of plagiarism-free papers. All papers produced by our professional academic writers are checked against all web resources and previously completed papers to avoid plagiarism.Read more
In our urge to provide the best professional essay writing services, we guarantee students of free revision policy. The free revision policy is a courtesy service where students can request for unlimited for their completed papers. We always aim at achieving 100% customer satisfaction rates. The free revision policy is one among many of our major advantages.Read more
At 101papers.com, every student is entitled to total security. Our professional academic writers are always committed to protecting all private information of our customers. We do not share any personal information with third parties. Additionally, we provide safe systems for all online transactions.Read more
Working with us is the greatest step towards achieving all your academic goals. We always deliver the best professional essay writing services as promised. We, therefore, expect all students to work cooperatively with us, as we work towards achieving our goal, your satisfaction. This way, all services will be delivered accurately and on time.Read more