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I need help in correcting the grammar and spelling mistakes of this assignment.  Also, the meaning of sentences. Also, correct the citing within texts using Old-fasion CHICAGO style. Doubled-space 12 font. Put it in word file please.



After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1989, Afghanistan become a paradise for the Taliban regime, which was able to extend its influence within the country after coming to power. During this period, the Taliban regime adopted in its authority the fundamentalist version of Islam and enabled the creation of AL-Qaeda camps where training fighters from inside and outside the country was taking place. From Afghanistan, AL-Qaeda had been able to find the safe place for planning an attack on the United State, which was considered to be the first enemy for Bin-laden who was the leader of Al-Qaeda. Bin Laden actually was able to take the opportunity and attacked the United States by the bombing of the twin towers of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.  In response to 9/11,  the US launched Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in October 2001 right after the attack. in The goal of that operation was to derive the Taliban from power and to destroy AL-Qaeda infrastructure and operations in Afghanistan. (Sky, 2007, P.7)

In the war on Afghanistan, the United State was able to persuade its allies in NATO to participate in military operations. From that standing point, on September 12, the secretary general of NATO, Lord Robertson,announced that the Alliance had invoked Article 5 of the Atlantic Charter for the first time: “An attack on one is an attack on all, Robertson declared” ( Kirkey & Ostroy, 2010, p. 202)


In response to that announcement, Canada had decided to support the US military in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan in October of 2001. At that time, the Canadian forces contained six naval surface platforms, six aircraft, and some 2000 personnel to help America’s goal of breaking down the Taliban. In September 2003, Canada took another step after the announcement of NATO Secretary General Robertson that the Canadian Forces would take command of the ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) in early 2004 in southern Afghanistan. Yost says (2014), quoting the ISAF website, “In support of the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, ISAF conducts operations in Afghanistan to reduce the capability and will of the insurgency, support the growth in capacity and capability of the Afghan National Security Forces(ANSF), and facilitate improvements in governance and socio-economic development in order to provide a secure environment for sustainable stability that is observable to the population.” (Yost, 2014, p.135) 


The course of action of ISAF was expanded in October 2003 beyond the borders of Kabul. In 2004, In the era of the Canadian prime minister Paul Mart, Canada continued its commitment to support military operations in southern Afghanistan, but the number of soldiers was less than it used to be in the past two years. As a part of NATO, in 2004, Canada renewed its commitment to the military mission in Afghanistan by the formation of a working group for the reconstruction of southern province of Kandahar. The staff was made up of 250-500 individuals of the Canadian Forces. Despite the fact that the nature of the operation begun as a peacekeeping operation, it turned out to be a one of a direct combat role. (Kirkey & Ostroy, 2010, P. 203)


The period of 2005-2011 witnessed a very significant role of the Canadian military forces in southern Afghanistan. When Stephen Harper came into power, he reaffirmed the commitment to Afghanistan in Kandahar region. The Canadian forces emerged in southern Afghanistan in a more active combat role.

The years that followed 2011 saw a change in the Canadian mission in Afghanistan. In those years post-2011, the Canadian government announced an end to military operations after sending 40,000 personnel. Canada replaced it with training operations serve the Afghan army and the Afghan police in order to maintain internal stability, particularly in areas surrounding Kabul. That operation was under the auspices of NATO and was dubbed the name of NATO Training Mission-Afghanistan. (Haynek & Marton 2012, p.102)

However, after all, was Canada’s involvement in Afghanistan necessary? In answering this question, this critical essay will argue that there are three reasons why Canada participated in the war in Afghanistan. The first and most important reason is Canada’s national security. Also, there were the political and economic aspects that forced Canada’s involvement in the war in Afghanistan with NATO.


No Security no Survival


In 2010, in the Canadian Senate, there was a discussion about the Canadian national security and the defense policy which was taken toward the war in Afghanistan. Through a statement issued by the Senate, the senate made it clear that the number one reason for participation in the Afghanistan war was the national security of Canadians. Below is the actual statement by the senate,


“Canada is in Afghanistan for a very clear reason: Canada’s national security. We went to Afghanistan following the attack on the United States on September 11, 2001, when 2,976 people from 77 countries were killed, including 24 Canadians. The Al Qaeda hijackers responsible trained at camps in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan. NATO, of which the United States and Canada are founding members, took the unprecedented step of invoking Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty by which an attack on one member country is considered to be an attack on all, and which requires that all assist by taking such actions as collectively deemed necessary.” (Wallin & Dallaire, 2010, P.13)


Since the fall of the Soviet Union, AL-Qaeda has become a security threat at the international level where it became with a high-capacity system in the planning for guerrillas. Afghanistan with support from Taliban became the command center of this organization that plans to target everything from the west across the world. Sometimes, targeting embassies and sometimes targeting places serving Western economic interests. Certainly, the western countries, including Canada, had to act to eliminate this problem from its root. These countries which are all members in NATO took the initiative when Al-Qaeda started to target their people overseas including diplomats. Therefore, Canada’s mission in Afghanistan is basically to prevent that country from ever again serving as a safe haven for terrorists, and to leave in place a functioning state, capable of governing and defending itself.  (Saikal, 2006, P.530)


There is no doubt that Al Qaeda shapes a threat to Canada whether directly or indirectly. consequently, It is in Canada’s best interest that Afghanistan not again be used as a base from which global terrorist attacks can be launched. According to the CBC news, In 2008,  two Canadians were missing in the West African country of Niger. One of them was a former top Canadian diplomat at the United Nations. In February 2009, Al-Qaeda Organization claimed responsibility for the two Canadians kidnapping. Thus, it was Canada’s obligation to prevent such things to happen ever again through destroying Al-Qaeda.


Canada’s Practice of Burden-Sharing in ISAF is a proof to that Canada Wanted National Security


Basically, the essential goal of ISAF ‘s operation is to establish stability and security in southern and eastern Afghanistan that are troubled by AL Qaeda insurgency.(Saikal, 2006, p. 529) One of the things that can explain the need for Canada to participate in the Afghanistan war is this operation of ISAF and Canada’s serious and large contribution to it. How can one explain such strong burden-sharing commitments made by Canada?

Canada’s financial commitment to support this operation was estimated to be around $12 billion dollars. Giving that number, Canada was considered to be one of the top shareholders in ISAF. Canada actually shouldered high share of the collective burden at 4.1 percent until 2011, which was a big number to provide for a middle power country (Zyla , 2013 p.292).


That indicates that the benefits of going to war overweight the costs. The Canadian government will not spend huge amounts of money out of love to fight wars or to satisfy a certain partner. However,there is something more to Canadian burden-sharing practices than what can be explained and that is of course its national security. The Canadian government knew that the money spent would make returns to Canada’s security and survival. By ensuring the destruction of AL-Qaeda, Canada actually would guarantee its security and its economic interests around the world since AL-Qaeda was a virus that spread frighteningly. Therefore, it was necessary for Canada to  join the war at all costs. In other words, it can be said that Canada wanted security in exchange with huge amounts of money being spent.


Canadian foreign policy and its impact on the Afghanistan war


Canada is one of the early founding nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Not only that, but contributed significantly to maintain the entity of this organization and its survival for the future. As a part of NATO, Canada could not abandon to help its allies in Afghanistan when NATO called for war. It is not in Canada’s political interest to oppose the decision made by NATO to launch the war against terrorism in Afghanistan. The reason behind it is that Canada would ensures positive relations with other countries within the North Atlantic Treaty in times of need. However, It is true that there were some opponents of Canada’s involvement in Afghanistan, but when looking at the political dimensions of that involvement, opponents would became to appreciate the Canadian position direction of the Afghanistan war.  For example, if it was assumed that Canada did not participate in the war against terrorists in Afghanistan, what would be the result politically? The first possibility is that Canada after failing to comply with Article 5 of the Washington Treaty, would have lost its credibility toward its Allies. Especially, George W. E Bush after 9/11 openly declared that those who do not support the war on terror are terrorists. So, what position should Canada take in this situation? As a neighboring country and a good friend of the United States and as an essential part of NATO, Canada had an obligation to be committed to the war against terrorism in Afghanistan. In addition, the peacekeeping operation in the world is the responsibility of every country, especially those countries in NATO, which their principles are based on democracy, freedom, the rule of law and human rights. (Washington Treaty, NATO’s website)


External responsibility is another factor that is central to explaining Ottawa’s decision to go to Afghanistan and fight. In short, the Canada–Afghanistan connection cannot be properly understood without reference to Canada’s external responsibility. According to Zyla (2013), “Canada has historically felt an obligation to help other countries in their efforts to build conditions of peace, freedom, stability, and prosperity.” (p.299)


Through history, Canada’s foreign policy is characterized by its support for humanitarian rights and its help for those countries that need to address development. ِAnd no doubt that Afghanistan was one of those countries that needed such interference to be provided with such things. Thus, it was for Canada’s political interest to show leadership in that regard. Harper’s speech to Canadians can explain the nature of the Canadian intervention in Afghanistan,


“The truth is: Canada is not an island. … [W]e live in a dangerous world and we have to show leadership in that world, and that’s what we’re doing. I don’t think there’s been a better example in decades of Canada really standing up, going to the front line, articulating our values,not just our opposition to terror, our advancement of democracy, but basic humanitarian values, development. … [T]his is a tremendous mission where we’re showing leadership …taking on dangers and advancing the kind of things that go to the heart of what Canada is all about as a country.” (Blanchfield 2006)


Economic Interest is Another Drive 


Another potential reason why Canada is in Afghanistan is the fact that Canada has a very significant economic interest in the country. Canada did not only involve in Afghanistan to provide for the afghans through protecting their human rights and developing their security, but also Canada was involved to provide for itself in terms of enhancing the economic sources in Afghanistan. The biggest proof of this is the investment in the field of mining in the eastern part of Afghanistan, where most of the conflict with Taliban is going on. In this region, Canada spent millions of dollars to make sure that stability is taking place. But if we assume that stability has returned again to the region, it would make up for the money expended by the economic activities between the two countries.  


One of the most popular mining reserves in the Eastern Afghanistan is called the Hajigak deposit, which is the largest iron deposit in Asia and possibly the world. In order to bid for the right to mine iron, Afghanistan invited almost 22 companies from different countries and Canada is one of them.In 2001, the Canadian company Kilo Goldmines was awarded by the government of Afghanistan %25 of that share to develop Hajigak iron deposit in Bamiyan Afghanistan. ( Sutphin, Renaud & Drew 2011, p.331) Therefore, that Refers to the importance of protecting the economic interests through assistance to Afghanistan in its war on terrorism that was and still threatening.


In addition to the economic interests of Canada in Afghanistan, there is also a Canadian economic interest that was and still threatened by terrorists around the world. In the last ten years, the world witnessed a recent phenomenon of targeting Western economic interests by AL-Qaeda. Thus, it was of importance for for Canada to join NATO’s mission in Afghanistan in order to get rid of the constant threat of terrorism.


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