Inflammatory markers can be used to detect the inflammation and as indicator for disease. Inflammatory markers include : C reactive protein (CRP), Cytokines (IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL1,VEGF,IFN,TNF,MCP1,EGF), Adhesion Molecules (ICAM,VCAM,E-Selectin, L-Selectin, P-Selectin (Watson et al, 2012; Cesari et al,2003; Libby et al., 2014; Bautista et al., 2005 ).
-The important of cytokines to be in normal range level
Cytokines are a group of signalling molecules involved in communication between immune cells (Hamblin, 1993). Editing need please.
-The important of cytokines in health
Cytokines play important roles not in tissue homeostasis and the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. Cytokines play a roles in the maintenance tissue homeostasis process, which requires a delicate balance between anabolic and catabolic activities, such as growth factors. They play important roles in modulating the proliferation of cells. However, excessive production of cytokines in inflamed periodontal tissues is responsible for the progress of periodontitis and periodontal tissue destruction. Particularly, inflammatory cytokines-such as IL-la, 1L-1β, IL-6, and IL-8-are present in the diseased periodontal tissues, and their unrestricted production seems to play a role in chronic leukocyte recruitment and tissue destruction. Detecting and monitoring the cytokine level may allow us to diagnose the disease such as diabetes and obesity (Okada,1998).
-The link between cytokines level and disease
– Cytokine in Diabetes
Increasing the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 are associated with type 2 diabetes (Dandona et al,.2004). Editing need please.
– Cytokines in Obesity
Increasing the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 are associated with obesity (Dandona et al,.2004).Editing need please.
– Cytokines in Cardiovascular disease
Increase the plasma concentration of CRP and IL-6 is increasedthe risk of atherosclerotic complications and myocardial infarction (Dandona et al,.2004).Editing need please.
-The health benefit of plant polyphenols
Polyphenol compounds have one or more hydroxyle group attached directly to an aromatic ring and their structures may range from simple phenolic molecules to high molecules mass complexes (Balasundram et al., 2006). Phenolic compounds are present in all plant and consume in the diet. They play a biological activity which may be benefit to human health such as anti-inflammatory effects (Miles et al., 2005).
-The impact of plant polyphenols on cytokines
Polyphenols such as Epicatechingallate, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate decreased the production of cytokines such as interleukin1β (IL1β) and enhanced the production of interleukin 10 (IL10). Polyphenoles (flavonoids) modulated immune functions through modified the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), antibody production, natural killer cell activity, lysosome release by neutrophils, neutrophil (Crouvezier et al., 2001). Editing need please.
– Effect of plant polyphenols on obesity
long-term of consumption green tea polyphenols (catechins,EGCG) may decrease the incidence of obesity (Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.
– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on obesity
The polyphenols(catechins,EGCG) are known to be capable of inhibiting catechol-o-methyl-transferase, which increased with obesity(Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.
– Effect of plant polyphenols on cardiovascular disease
The dietary green tea and polyphenol components can play a protective role in the development of CVD (Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.
– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on cardiovascular disease
Tea polyphenols intake preserves and improves arterial compliance and endothelial function(Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.
– Effect of plant polyphenols on glucose level
Tea polyphenols (catechins), especially EGCG appear to haveanti- diabetic effects (Kao et al., 2006). Editing need please.
– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on glucose level
The mechanisms may be related to certain pathways, such as through the modulationscarbohydrate metabolism and the redox status (Khan and Mukhtar, 2007).Editing need please.
– Effect plant polyphenols on inflammatorymarkers (cytokines)
Cinnamon leaves polyphenols extract (at a dose of 60 lg/ml ) inhibitory effects of cytokines in particular IL-1β and IL-6 productions in Lipopolysaccharide(LPS )stimulated macrophages. Essential oil of cinnamon (C.osmophloeumtwigs) has excellent anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells (Yu-Tang et al., 2008).Cinnamon polyphenols reduce the expression of VCAM, which increased in diabetic rate. Also, cinnamon polyphenols reduce the elevated of Monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP1), whichincreased with AGE in diabetic rats (Muthenna, et al, 2014).Editing need please.
– The mechanism effect of plant polyphenols on inflammation
Trans-cinnamaldehyde , which is one of cinnamon compound , mightinhibition of NO generation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Also, there is no significant cytotoxic effects on cells treated with trans-cinnamaldehyde at concentrationsup to 200 lM.Thus,cinnamaldehyde might work as antioxidant which reduces the inflammation(Yu-Tang et al., 2008).Editing need please.
The Aims of writing
– To investigatethe effect of plant polyphenols such as tea and cinnamon polyphenols on cytokine levels (IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL1,VEGF,IFN,TNF,MCP1,EGF,ICAM,VCAM,E-Selectin, L-Selectin, P-Selectin).
– To investigate the activity of plant polyphenol as anti-inflammation, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes and how reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
– To investigate the mechanism effect of plant polyphenols as anti- inflammation, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes and how reduce the cardiovascular disease.
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1- I provide the contents and my aims. So, you know what I am looking for and what editing I want you to do.
2- At each subtitle, I wrote the information. I provide the reference (materials), which I uploaded to help you in term of the editing. You can add more references, if they help and useful.
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4- Finally, in addition to the materials (articles) that I uploaded, there are very useful references (see below please). I provided the title and authors name. Sorry, I could not access to these articles and books, so I did not uploaded. Please use them in the editing.
1-Polyphenols and Human Health: A Prospectus
Authors:Francesco Visioli a , Catalina Alarcón De La Lastra b , Cristina Andres-Lacueva c , Michael Aviram d , ConceiçãoCalhau e , Alfredo Cassano f , Massimo D’Archivio g , Ana.
2- Effects of Flavonoids and other Polyphenols on Inflammation
Authors:R. González a , I. Ballester c , R. López-Posadas a , M. D. Suárez b , A. Zarzuelo b , O.Martínez-Augustin b & F. Sánchez De Medina. (2011).
3- Dietary Polyphenols and the Prevention of Diseases
Authors:AugustinScalberta , Claudine Manach a , Christine Morand a , Christian Rémésy a &Liliana. (2005).
4-Kuby Immunology. Seventh Edition.
Authors:Owen, Punt, Stranford
5- The cytokine Handbook. Fourth Edition.
Edited: Angus W Thomson and Michael T Lotze.
6- Cytokines and cytokine receptors. Edition2.
Author:A S Hamblin
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