answer the five questions. The questions are about a book, Sagan, C. (1995). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Also, these questions are about only chapter 11. I do not want one page long essay. Please just answer each question. Please do not put together all answers. Each answer has to be at least four sentences. Please write appropriate answer.
1. In Chapter 12, Dr. Sagan introduces us to some of the lines between religion and pseudoscience. Dr. Sagan presents a concept known as the God of the Gaps Theory. What is the God of the Gaps Theory and what evidence would support it throughout human history? (Note that answering this question does not require that you subscribe to the God of the Gaps Theory. Rather, it only requires you to demonstrate that you understand it).
God of the Gaps is that people want to put the existence of God forward by current unexplained scientific explanation. In other words, it means people try to fill prematurely the empty gap in our knowledge by God. It is easy logical error to mistake while overzealous theists are developing discussion with limited knowledge of science.
2. In this chapter, Dr. Sagan presents a quote from Edmund Way Teale concerning the moral implications???? of indifference??? toward the distinction ?? between truth and fiction. Do you agree with the idea of the quote? Why or why not?
I agree with the idea of the quote. For example, if we know that the government is incompetent and corrupted, we are discouraged and disappointed. But, some people do not care and even do not know about that like it is not my business. But that does not mean being unaware the fact is not necessarily better. Being aware and unaware is very different in our society.
3. Dr. Sagan makes a very important distinction in this chapter between erroneous science and pseudoscience. What are the unique characteristics of pseudoscience that distinguish it from erroneous science (Hint: they are also the reasons why pseudoscience is so worrysome a threat to human reasoning.)
Erroneous science is that science improves and develops from errors. But, pseudo science is imprecise, exaggerated, and unverifiable. It also depends on confirmation instead of rebuttal.
4. Dr. Sagan shares with us the breadth? ?? with which pseudoscience has pervaded ????modern society. To emphasize his point, he shares an example of a US president’s reliance?? ?? on entirely unproven?????? superstitious???? practices to guide in his decision making. Who was the president and what was his vice?? ???? Does this scare you? Why or why not?
If the president depends on unproven superstitious practices, his decision is a lack of accuracy and get lost way what the country want to go forward. The citizens feel anxiety and distrust their president.
5. Dr. Sagan uses this chapter to express the gravity?? of the danger that arises??? ???? in a society that cannot—or will not—distinguish???? fact from fiction. But how does this apply to the business world? What do you think some of the dangers might be if leaders managed companies based on instructions from a “Magic 8? ball, or by flipping a “lucky” coin. Are these examples any less credible??? ?? than some othe others that Sagan discusses in the chapter?
In the business world, the leader makes his or her own understandable and reasonable decision. But, it is dangerous that a leader depend on superstition or pseudoscience for the company’s future. Depending on the superstition or pseudoscience is like a gambling. If a leader’s decision from the gambling, the company can develop forward.
1. In this Chapter, Dr. Sagan shares with us some responses from students about the state of American education described in the preceding chapter. Were the responses a surprise to you? Why or why not?
2. Then, Dr. Sagan shares with us a sampling of some parent opinions and commentary. What (if anything) surprised you about the parental perspectives on this issue? Why?
3. Dr. Sagan alludes to the “coolness” of learning in the preceding chapter, and now we hear from students and parents directly on the issue of how peer pressure and social expectations can make learning “uncool”. What do you think? Did you see a pressure not to be “a nerd” when you were going through grade school? How about now? What do you think causes this? How do we fix it?
4. One of the points that Dr. Sagan makes in this Chapter is the fact that retention in our public schooling is very low. Think back to what your learned in grade school. How much do you remember? How much do you think you have forgotten? In spite of this, Dr. Sagan shares some examples of extremely effective learning models and exercises. What is the common theme? How do we inspire the desire to learn and promote learning retention?
5. Although we can all agree that the education system in America could/should be better than it is, obviously there are a lot of different opinions on what (specifically) is wrong, and how (specifically) we go about correcting it. This is an issue that leaders in business and hospitality face all of the time. How can leaders most effectively address these challenges? Hint: Think about the Sciencenter story. What was special there? How did it end up becoming such a big success? What were the key factors in play?
1. In this chapter, Dr. Sagan provides a cross-section of mail responses he received from readers following some of his publications on UFOs. Which responses surprised you (if any) and why? Did you get the impression that the responses—on the whole—were disingenuous?
2. Are the examples in this cross-section of responses that Dr. Sagan provides in this chapter predominantly in support or denial of his promotion of healthy skepticism and the scientific method? Assuming this is a representative sampling of the total mail he received (hint: you need to know what “representative” means in this context in order to answer this part), what do you think is the reason for the proportion of letters Sagan received attacking his ideas (as compared to the proportion of those supporting them)? Why do you think there weren’t more people writing in to agree with Sagan? What does this say about our reactions when we feel that our pride and integrity are being attacked?
3. Let’s take this into the business context. In the service industry, we learn that people tend to tell 10 friends about a negative experience for every one or two friends they tell about a positive experience. Viewing this in light of the skew of the responses in this chapter, what might we suspect are the issues at play here (i.e. the causes of this phenomenon)? When people pay for a service, do you think they expect a positive or negative experience? What does this suggest about the relationship between our expectations and our reactions?
4. One thing that is evident in many of the responses is strong emotion. Where (if at all) do you see anger in the responses? Fear? Anxiety? We know from are understandings of human cognitions that emotions can often interfere with our capacity to be objective and unbiased in our perceptions. Do you see any responses in which these emotions distract from the facts of the issue at hand? How so?
5. In class, we’ve talked in our textbook discussions about cognitive biases as they relate to leaders and followers alike. One very common type is selective perception bias (if you need a refresher…Google it). Where do we see examples of selective perception bias in the responses in this chapter? What lessons can we as leaders of people take away from these examples? Can you think of a situation in business/hospitality where understanding this bias is helpful to a leader?
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