1. a virus is best described by which of the following definitions?

1. A virus is best described by which of the following definitions? *
A. A non-living microbe that has a DNA or RNA core covered by a protein coat and requires a host cell to replicate.
B. A living microbe that has a DNA or RNA core covered by a protein coat and requires a host cell to replicate
C. A non-living microbe that has a DNA or RNA core covered by a protein coat but does not require a host cell to replicate
D. Random DNA or RNA that disrupts host cell replication.
E. None of the above.
2. Which of the below choices best represents the correct order of steps in viral reproduction? *
A. Viral invasion of host cell, self-assembly of new virus particles, synthesis of new viral DNA/RNA and proteins, virus particles released from host cell
B. Virus particles released from host cell, synthesis of new viral DNA/RNA and proteins, viral invasion of host cell, self-assembly of new virus particles
C. Viral invasion of host cell, synthesis of new viral DNA/RNA and proteins, self-assembly of new virus particles, virus particles released from host cell.
D. Self-assembly of new virus particles, synthesis of new viral DNA/RNA and proteins, viral invasion of host cell, virus particles released from host cell.
3. In terms of the immune systems response to viral invasion, what is the role of preexisting antibodies? *
A. Antibodies attack infected cells.
B. Antibodies are signaling molecules produced by natural killer cells.
C. Antibodies block virus from infecting cells and allow macrophages to recognize and ingest virus particles.
D. Antibodies are produced by virus to help infect host cells.
E. None of the above.
4. In terms of the immune system’s response to viral invasion, macrophages activate which of the following immune cells? *
A. Cytotoxic T-cells
B. Memory cells
C. Helper T-cells
D. All of the above
E. None of the above
F. Choices A and C.
5. In terms of the immune system’s response to viral invasion, Helper T-cells activate which of the following immune cells? *
A. B- cells
B. Plasma Cells
C. Natural Killer Cells
D. All of the above.
E. None of the above.
6. Which of the below cell is responsible for making antibodies directed towards invading viruses? *
A. Cytotoxic T-cells
B. Natural Killer Cells
C. Helper T-Cells
D. Plasma Cells
E. None of the above.
7. What is the definition for a vaccine? *
A. The resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune
B. The administration of a vaccine to those people only in close contact with the infected person.
C. Protects a person against an infectious disease by stimulating the immune system todetect and destroy the disease causing antigen by using a harmless or weakend form of a pathogen to “boost” the immune systems defenses.
D. A DNA molecule made in vitro with segements from different sources.
E. None of the above.
8. What is the definition for ring vaccination? *
A. The resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune
B. The administration of a vaccine to those people only in close contact with the infected person.
C. Protects a person against an infectious disease by stimulating the immune system todetect and destroy the disease causing antigen by using a harmless or weakend form of a pathogen to “boost” the immune systems defenses.
D. A DNA molecule made in vitro with segements from different sources.
E. None of the above.
9. What is the definition for Herd Immunity? *
A. The resistance of a group to an attack by a disease to which a large proportion of the members of the group are immune
B. The administration of a vaccine to those people only in close contact with the infected person.
C. Protects a person against an infectious disease by stimulating the immune system todetect and destroy the disease causing antigen by using a harmless or weakend form of a pathogen to “boost” the immune systems defenses.
D. A DNA molecule made in vitro with segements from different sources.
E. None of the above.
10. What is the definition for a live vaccine? *
A. Contains disease agents that do not reproduce in the body and triggers only a partial immune response
B. any vaccine that is safe to use on living people .
C. contains virus particles that trigger a full immune response without invading and reproducing in host cells.
D. contains living pathogens that invade and use cells of the human body to reproduce causing a full immune response.
E. None of the above.
11. What is the definition for a non live vaccine *
A. Contains disease agents that do not reproduce in the body and triggers only a partial immune response
B. Any vaccine produced from blood or virus sample taken from a non-living animal or human.
C. Contains living virus particles that invade human cells but do not trgger a full immune response.
D. contains living pathogens that invade and use cells of the human body to reproduce causing a full immune response.
E. None of the above.
12. A type of live vaccine that contains altered pathogenic virus that can still invade and reproduce in the cells of the body producing a full immune response but no longer makes the patient sick is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
13. A type of non live vaccine that disables the virus’ ability to replicate in the human body, but maintains its shape and molecular characteristics that illicit an immune response is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
14. A type of non live vaccine that conditions the immune system to identify and eliminate toxins produced by a virus or bacteria but not the virus or bacteria itself is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
15. A type of non live vaccine that uses just a small part or protein from a virus to trigger a partial immune response is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
16. A type of live vaccine that uses one type of virus that is similar too, but not as pathogenic (does not make one as sick) as the virus that is being vaccinated against is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
17. A type of Non-live vaccine that uses pieces of raw viral DNA that is taken up by cells in the body causing them to make non-harmful viral proteins that trigger an immune response is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
18. A vaccine made by the following procedures: Isolate the viral DNA or RNA that is responsible for producing the vaccine protein or subunit –> insert the viral DNA into bacteria or yeast using a plasmid vector grow bacteria or yeast allowing them to produce viral protein or subunit–> purify viral protein or subunit inject purified protein or subunit is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
19. A vaccine made using the following procedures: Culture the pathogenic virus in cells grown on a dish (in vitro)–> treat the virus with chemicals such as formaldehyde or aluminum salts to disable the virus –> purify killed virus for injection is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
20. A vaccine made using the following procedures: Collect body fluid containing similar type virus –> purify virus from other molecules and contaminants in body fluid –> inoculate using similar virus is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
21. A vaccine made using the following procedures: Culture pathogenic virus in cells grown on a dish (in vitro) –> the virus is grown at different temperatures or in chemicals that are different from the human body –> An altered strain of virus that no longer grows as well in the human body is then selected to be used as a vaccine is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
22. A vaccine made using the following procedures: Culture bacteria or virus in a growth medium (in vitro) –> purify toxin from other molecules and contaminants –> use chemicals such as formaldehyde or aluminum salts to neutralize toxins –> inject harmless toxins with adjuvant (another vaccine that increases the immune response) as a vaccine is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
23. A vaccine made using the following procedures: Viral DNA is copied using PCR –> Restriction enzymes are used to cut a plasmid and ligase is used to paste viral DNA into a vector –> Vectors are then transformed into bacteria which mass produce the vectors containing viral DNA–> The vectors are then purified and used as a vaccine is called what? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
24. The vaccine for small pox, made by using the cow pox virus, is an example of which type of vaccine? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
25. The experimental HIV vaccine consist of vectors with pieces of HIV DNA. This is an example of which type of vaccine? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
26. The Hepatitis B vaccine uses harmless proteins from the virus to trigger a partial immune response this is an example of which type of vaccine? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
27. The measels vaccine uses a live measels strain selected because this strain does not reproduce well in the human body yet can still trigger a full immune response. This is an example of which vaccine? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
28. The Polio vaccine uses a non-live form of the viruse that maintian the molecular structure found in the live form of the virus. This is an example of which type of vaccine? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
29. The tetanus vaccine uses toxins from the bacteria that causes tetanus that have been made harmless through chemical treatment. This is an example of which type of vaccine? *
A. Similar Pathogen
B. Killed vaccine
C. Toxoid vaccine
D. Genetic vaccine
E. Subunit vaccine
F. Live-attenuated
30. Which of the following statements about restriction endonucleases is false. *
A. Are also know as restriction enzymes
B. Recognizes specific palindromic sequences of DNA
C. Cuts the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA in a way that leaves sticky ends thatcan be pasted back together.
D. The sticky ends left by different restriction endonucleases can be pasted back together.
E. None of the above.
31. Which of the following statements about DNA ligase is true? *
A. This enzyme is sometimes called molecular scissors.
B. This enzyme can identify matching sticky ends and paste them back together.
C. This enzyme helps transfer plasmids to one bacteria from another.
D. This enzyme recognizes specific DNA sequences and cuts the DNA
E. None of the above.
32. Which of the following statements about plasmids are true? *
A. plasmids are small rings of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome.
B. plasmids can also be used for making genetic products by recombining DNA from other sources
C. Plasmids are often transferred from one bacteria to another through a process call transduction.
D. A and B only
E. B and C only
F. None of the above.
33. Diagram 1 shows changes in antibody levels in response to viral infection. The curve shown represents a response that you might see in a patient that has been… *
A. Vaccinated for the specific viral infection
B. Not vaccinated for the specific viral infection.
C. Can not determine from the information given.
34. Diagram 2 shows changes in antibody levels in response to viral infection. The curve shown represents a response that you might see in a patient that has been… *
A. Vaccinated for the specific viral infection
B. Not vaccinated for the specific viral infection.
C. Can not determine from the information given.
35. Diagram 3 is a graphical representation of which vaccination strategy?
A. Ring vaccination
B. Herd Immunity
C. Cocooning
D. Stick vaccination
E. None of the above.
36. Diagram 4 is a graphical representation of which vaccination strategy?
A. Herd Immunity
B. Ring vaccination
C. Mobile vaccination
D. Stick vaccination
E. None of the above

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